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həʔapus Village Park and Shoreline Habitat

Map & Directions
4500 Duwamish Trail | Seattle, WA 98106
Latitude, Longitude
47° 19' 47" N, 122° 12' 35" E
General Information
həʔapus Village Park & Shoreline Habitat (formerly Terminal 107 Park) is an important archaeological, cultural, and ecological site that sits on the shores of one of the last remaining original bends of the Duwamish River. Located just off West Marginal Way across from the Duwamish Longhouse and Cultural Center, the park offers more than seven acres of native landscape park area along a vibrant river shoreline that volunteers continue to help restore to this day. Park hours are dawn to dusk.

həʔapus Village Park and Shoreline Habitat

Formerly: Terminal 107 Park

(haapoos, “ha-ah-poos”: Name of a small stream draining across a flat on the west side of Duwamish River)

 

Terminal 107 Park (also known as T-107 Park) is an important archaeological, cultural and ecological site that sits on the shores of one of the last remaining original bends of the Duwamish River. Located just off West Marginal Way across from the Duwamish Longhouse and Cultural Center, the park offers over seven acres of native landscape park area along a vibrant river shoreline that volunteers continue restoring to this day. 

Lat 47°33'35.77"N, Long 122°21'3.03"W

Coast Salish uses and history

Terminal 107 Park was the ancestral site of the Indigenous village of yile’qwud (Yee-LE-kwud), referring to a Yakama style basket hat. The village consisted of large cedar plank longhouses where multiple families shared living and community activity space. A small creek, draining across a flat, on the west side of the river also served as a marker for this site, which was known as “ha 3a’ pus” (Hah-AH-poos).

Standing at the shoreline looking east, you can see Kellogg Island, which is a small remnant of a large historic island. Its original name was Mud Island, situated between two river channels, exceeding 315 acres. Looking south from the park’s shoreline, you can see the last remaining original bend of the river. This view offers you a rare chance to imagine what the area looked like 1,000 years ago.

In 1977, because of archaeological materials recovered from the site, Terminal 107 Park was added to the National Register of Historic Places under the name “Duwamish #1 Site,” which has evidence of Coast Salish use from more than 2,000 years ago and continuing to the early historic period.

həʔapus Village Park & Shoreline Habitat

Settler uses and history

Multiple important Indigenous village and water-related places congregated around this site. However, in 1865, the City of Seattle banned Native Americans from living within Seattle city limits. In 1893, non-Native colonists burnt down a nearby Coast Salish settlement known as tla’ltu (tol-AHL-tu), “Herring’s House”, which forced many Indigenous people to relocate. Today, Terminal 107 Park is adjacent a City-owned park named after that village, even though it was originally located further north closer to the Port’s Terminal 105 Park.

In the first decades of the 1900s the river and estuary was straightened and deepened to facilitate industrial uses. This new dredged straightened path is what is seen today beyond Kellogg Island and the secondary curving channel is adjacent to the site.

həʔapus Village Park view of the industrial waterway

Industrial uses and history

From around 1930 to 1970 industry developed in and around this site as part of Boeing and Seattle’s industrial growth, and pollution was widespread. During this time, after the displacement of Indigenous residences, the site was inhabited by new settlers including Croatian and Norwegian immigrants who began using it as a residential and commercial area. Past industrial uses and activities included lumber mills, brick factories, vessel navigation, and wooden boat construction.

The port purchased the site in early 1972 to build a large marine cargo facility. In 1977, as buildings were being demolished, historic artifacts were found by the Duwamish Tribe and US Army Corps of Engineers representatives, which halted construction and led to the preservation of the area. In 1977, the site was added to the National Register of Historic Places under the name “Duwamish #1 Site,” which dated Coast Salish settlements at this site as early as 1999 BC.

həʔapus Village Park and Shoreline Habitat
Photo source: Google Earth

Conservation uses and history

Today, Terminal 107 Park stands as a public access site and serves as a critical habitat area for salmon and other migratory fish and wildlife to rest, feed and escape from predators. Upon designation, the area was left inactive until 2000, when it was constructed as a shoreline access site and park, as part of mitigation related to a cargo terminal re-development at Terminal 5 and Terminal 18.

Since 2006, the Duwamish Alive Coalition has organized biannual hands-on habitat restoration activities to support environmental education and community action to restore river habitat for Chinook salmon and other migratory wildlife along the Duwamish River. Each spring and fall, the coalition hosts a work party where over 50 volunteers of diverse ages and ethnicities join in for a day of pulling invasive weeds, planting trees, and learning about the site’s history.

Duwamish Alive volunteer planting a native species shrub, həʔapus Village Park, Seattle, Oct. 2018

Community uses and history

Year-round, youth from the Duwamish Valley Youth Corps participate in Duwamish Alive by restoring and cleaning the park. Many local Duwamish Valley youth lack the same access to parks and open spaces that youth in other parts of the city have. Thanks to the combined efforts of many organizations, youth now come by on their free time to explore Terminal 107 Park.

More families that live in South Park and Georgetown are learning about this park and sharing its history with their loved ones. The Duwamish Longhouse and Cultural Center, located across the street, provides public tours and youth education projects related to the site due to its significant historical and cultural value to Seattle’s First People.

Lushootseed is a Coast Salish Indigenous language spoken by many tribal communities in the Puget Sound region. The Duwamish River area has ancestrally been, and still is, a very active cultural area for Indigenous peoples from many backgrounds. This area is also one of the most ethnically and linguistically diverse in the city. Many immigrant and refugee communities are residents or have cultural connection to the area, especially Latinx, East Africans, Southeast Asians, and Pacific Islanders.

həʔapus Village Park and Shoreline Habitat, Duwamish, Seattle, Oct. 2020

Public shoreline access features

  • Intertidal ancestral bend of river with wildlife viewing
  • Adjacent to Duwamish Trail along West Marginal Way
  • Salmon Safe Certified Park
  • Walking paths and trails
  • Four shoreline seating and three river viewpoints
  • Picnic tables and information kiosk
  • Two hand-carried boat launch paths
  • A water fountain/hand-wash station
  • Paved, off-street parking for up to 20 vehicles
  • Open turf areas
  • Public art and interpretive signage

Family enjoying the sun at həʔapus Village Park, Duwamish River, Seattle, Sept. 2016,


Sources

Blomberg, G. (2020). Sr. Environmental Program Manager, Port of Seattle. (G. Lee, Interviewer) Seattle.

Buerge, D. M. (2020). Historian and Author, "Chief Seattle and the Town That Took His Name: The Change of Worlds for the Native People and Settlers on Puget Sound". (G. Lee, Interviewer) Seattle.

Burke Museum of Natural History and Culture, et al. (2014). The Waterlines Map. Retrieved from https://www.burkemuseum.org/static/waterlines/project_map.html

Cummings, B. (2020). Author, "The River That Made Seattle: A Human and Natural History of the Duwamish". (D. Edamura, Interviewer)

Hilbert, V., et al. (2001). Puget Sound Geography: Original Manuscript from T.T. Waterman. Federal Way: Lutshootseed Press.

Leischman, S. (2020). Manager, Duwamish Alive Coaliton. (D. Edamura, Interviewer)

Medina, R. M. (2020). Friends of Georgetown History, Board President. (G. Lee, Interviewer)

Muckleshoot Indian Tribe. (2020). History of the Muckleshoot Indian Tribe and its Reservation. Retrieved from http://www.muckleshoot.nsn.us/about-us/overview.aspx

National Register of Historic Places. (1977, October 18). Digital Archive on NP Gallery. Retrieved from https://npgallery.nps.gov/NRHP/AssetDetail?assetID=534c7e57-7c7f-43a2-9…

Ott, J. (2014, November 10). Sdzidzilalitch (Little Crossing-Over Place). Retrieved from HistoryLink: https://www.historylink.org/File/10965

Ott, J. (2014, December 7). Seattle Board of Trustees passes ordinance, calling for removal of Indians from the town, on February 7, 1865. Retrieved from HistoryLink: https://www.historylink.org/File/10979

Rasmussen, J. (2020). Superfund Cleanup Manager, Duwamish River Cleanup Coalition. (D. Edamura, Interviewer)

The Duwamish Longhouse and Cultural Center. (2020). Duwamish: Our History. Retrieved from https://www.duwamishtribe.org/history

The Seattle Civil Rights & Labor History Project at University of Washington. (2020). Retrieved from https://depts.washington.edu/civilr/segregated.htm

The Suquamish Tribe. (2020). History and Culture. Retrieved from https://suquamish.nsn.us/home/about-us/history-culture/#tab-id-5

Waterman, T. (1922). The Geographical Names Used by the Indians of the Pacific Coast. The Geographical Review, pp. 12:175-194.

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